What causes vegetation on heart valves?

What causes vegetation on heart valves?

Endocarditis is an inflammation of the valves of the heart. Endocarditis is often caused by the growth of bacteria on one of the heart valves, leading to a mass known as a vegetation. Symptoms can be nonspecific and include fever, malaise, shortness of breath, and weakness.

Why does endocarditis cause a stroke?

Stroke as a complication of infective endocarditis (IE) results from the embolization of endocardial vegetations with consecutive occlusion of an intracerebral artery. Dissemination of the emboli into cerebral or meningeal vessels can further lead to meningitis or intracerebral abscess formation.

What is vegetation on aortic valve?

Vegetation on an echocardiogram is an oscillating intracardiac mass on the valve or supporting structures, in the path of regurgitant jets. Presence of abscess or partial dehiscence of prosthetic valve also fulfills echocardiographic criteria of infective endocarditis.

What size of vegetation is an indication for surgery in endocarditis?

There is strong evidence to suggest that a vegetation size of ≥10 mm especially for left-sided infective endocarditis is an indication for surgery.

Which valve is most common for endocarditis?

The tricuspid valve is most commonly affected (50%), whereas involvement of the mitral and aortic valves is less common (20% each). The involvement of multiple valves is common. Pulmonary valve endocarditis is rare.

What is the most common bacterial cause of endocarditis?

Two kinds of bacteria cause most cases of bacterial endocarditis. These are staphylococci (staph) and streptococci (strep). You may be at increased risk for bacterial endocarditis if you have certain heart valve problems.

What does vegetation on heart valve mean in medical terms?

What does vegetation on heart valve mean? Abnormal growths (vegetations) that contain collections of bacteria may form in your heart at the site of the infection and damage the heart valves, which can cause them to leak. Endocarditis is a life-threatening inflammation of the inner lining of your heart’s chambers and valves (endocardium).

How big should native valve ie vegetation be?

Current (2014) American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines suggest that intervention may be considered among patients with native valve IE and mobile vegetation (s) >10 mm in length (Class IIb, Level of Evidence B); it is not clear that this meta-analysis should substantially change the weight of that recommendation.

How is endocarditis treated in the setting of a stroke?

MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCARDITIS IN THE SETTING OF STROKE. Once endocarditis has been diagnosed in acute stroke patients, efforts should be directed towards minimizing the risk of subsequent cerebral embolization and, if possible, curing the pathology underlying the embolic source.

Why are larger valvular vegetations more prone to embolization?

It makes intuitive sense that larger valvular vegetations may be more prone to embolization, and this meta-analysis supports this.