What causes pontine Myelinolysis?

What causes pontine Myelinolysis?

Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a neurological disorder that most frequently occurs after too rapid medical correction of sodium deficiency (hyponatremia). The rapid rise in sodium concentration is accompanied by the movement of small molecules and pulls water from brain cells.

Is pontine Myelinolysis curable?

The disorder can’t be cured, but its symptoms can be treated. CPM is one of the two types of osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS). The other type, known as extrapontine myelinosis (EPM), occurs when myelin is destroyed in areas of the brain that aren’t in the brain stem.

What causes osmotic demyelination syndrome?

The most common cause of ODS is a quick change in the body’s sodium levels. This most often occurs when someone is being treated for low blood sodium (hyponatremia) and the sodium is replaced too fast. Sometimes, it occurs when a high level of sodium in the body (hypernatremia) is corrected too quickly.

What is Extrapontine Myelinolysis?

Extrapontine myelinolysis (EPM) is one of the complications occurring secondary to rapid correction of hyponatremia, and is, along with central pontine myelinolysis encompassed by the more recent term osmotic demyelination syndrome.

Can the pons heal?

Recovery from a pontine stroke is possible. If you have experienced a pontine stroke, once your symptoms stabilize over time, the focus of your recovery will be based on preventing complications such as choking and preventing further strokes from happening.

What is pontine damage?

Causes. Alcoholism, malnutrition. Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a neurological condition involving severe damage to the myelin sheath of nerve cells in the pons (an area of the brainstem).

Can you recover from osmotic demyelination?

We diagnosed osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) and started performing plasma exchange (PE) on the 39th day of hospitalization. She fully recovered after starting PE, and was discharged on foot unassisted. PE can be a beneficial treatment in patients with chronic ODS.

What is a pontine?

Listen to pronunciation. (PON-teen) Having to do with the pons (part of the central nervous system, located at the base of the brain, between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain).

What causes damage to the pons?

This can happen because the blood vessels that supply blood to the pons and the rest of the brainstem are located in the back of the neck, and may become injured as result of neck trauma or sudden pressure or movements of the head or neck.

Are there any cases of extrapontine myelinolysis?

MRI changes were suggestive of Extrapontine myelinolysis (EPM). This case is at variance with four previous cases reported in the medical literature in that the patient made a full clinical recovery and the MR changes resolved with symptomatic support alone.

When did central pontine myelinolysis become a disease?

Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) was described by Adams and colleagues in 1959 as a disease affecting alcoholics and the malnourished. 1 The concept was extended from 1962 with the recognition that lesions can occur outside the pons, so-called extrapontine myelinolysis (EPM).

What makes extrapontine myelinolysis presenting as acute parkinsonism?

Extrapontine myelinolysis presenting with parkinsonism like features may be a challenging clinical syndrome with wide differential including neurodegenerative disease, vascular and metabolic conditions and exposure to toxin (see table 1 ).

What are the results of a myelinolysis test?

Sodium was 135 and potassium 3.9. Thyroid functions were normal and thyroid peroxidase antibody was negative. The serum cortisol was low at 83 nmol/l and glucose was normal. A synacthen test was diagnostic of Addison’s disease and her adrenal antibodies were positive.