How common is brain stem glioma?
How common are brainstem glioma tumours? Brainstem gliomas are most common in children between 7 and 9 years of age. Almost 11% of all childhood brain and central nervous system tumours are brain stem gliomas.
Is brain stem glioma fatal?
Brainstem glioma is an aggressive and dangerous cancer. Without treatment, the life expectancy is typically a few months from the time of diagnosis. With appropriate treatment, 37% survive more than one year, 20% survive 2 years. and 13% survive 3 years.
Is there a cure for brain stem glioma?
In most cases, treatment unfortunately cannot cure this disease. Because of this, many ongoing clinical research trials are searching for more effective therapies for children with brainstem gliomas.
How is brain stem glioma diagnosed?
Brain stem glioma is usually diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) only (see below). In general, a biopsy is avoided in children with diffuse brain stem glioma because the results of the biopsy do not change treatment options and the procedure can have serious risks.
Is brainstem glioma curable?
A brain stem glioma, tumors which usually affect children, is not curable. Treatment can send this cancer into remission, however, meaning tests show no evidence of the disease.
Can a tumor on the brain stem be removed?
Because the brain stem is a small area that is so essential for life, it might not be possible to surgically remove tumors in this area.
How are brain stem gliomas spread in children?
The majority of childhood brain stem gliomas are diffuse astrocytomas that involve the pons (diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas [DIPGs]), often with contiguous involvement of other brain stem sites.[2,3] Spread of malignant brain stem tumors is usually contiguous, with metastasis via the subarachnoid space.
What kind of brain tumor does a child have?
Childhood brain stem glioma is a disease in which benign (noncancer) or malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the brain stem. Brain tumors may be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). There are two types of brain stem gliomas in children. The cause of most childhood brain tumors is unknown.
Can a child have a non-DIPG brain stem tumor?
Non-DIPG brain stem tumors. Biopsy or resection is generally indicated for non-DIPG brain stem tumors. Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are at an increased risk of developing brain stem gliomas, often pilocytic astrocytomas and not DIPGs. They may present with a long history of symptoms or be identified by screening tests.
How to treat recurrent focal brain stem gliomas?
Treatment options for recurrent childhood focal brain stem gliomas include the following: 1 Surgery. The need for surgical intervention must be individualized on the basis of the initial tumor type, the location within the brain stem, the length of time between initial treatment, 2 Radiation therapy. [ 5] 3 Chemotherapy.